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MYASTHENIA GRAVIS (the classic assays and 3 new assays)


MYOSITIS (polymyositis, dermatomyositis)

PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHIES (Guillain-Barre, Miller Fisher, etc)





Syndromes related to autoimmune encephalitis:

- Limbic and NMDA encephalitis

- Autoimmune cerebellar ataxia

- Autoimmune Epilepsy

- Autoimmune Dementia

- Behavior disorders

- Sleep disorders of autoimmune etiology.

- Hypothalamic dysfunction

- Vision Disorders of autoimmune etiology

- Stiff-Person Syndrome / PERM

- Autoimmune chorea

- Opsoclonus & myoclonus

- Brainstem syndrome

- Autoimmune myelopathy

- Sensorimotor neuropathy




Monday-Friday 7:30 to 18:00
Saturday: 9.00-11.00


SOCRATES J. TZARTOS – Managing Director

Emeritus Professor, Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, and Emeritus researcher of the Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology and Immunology at the Hellenic Pasteur Institute in Athens. Scientific advisor of Tzartos NeuroDiagnostics.
     He received his Ph.D. in Biology in 1976 from the University of Athens. He then performed postdoctoral research at the University of Cambridge, UK (76-78), the Salk Institute in San Diego, Calif. (78-81) and the Institut Pasteur, Paris (81-82).
     Since 1983 he has been working at the Hellenic Pasteur Institute as a researcher (1983-1988), Research Director (1989 to 2001), collaborating Professor (2001-2016) and Emeritus researcher (2016-today). Between 2001-2012  he served in parallel as Professor of Immunobiology at the Department of Pharmacy, University of Patras, until his retirement in 2012. In 2013 he was elected Emeritus Professor at the University of Patras. He has supervised 16 postdoctoral researchers, 25 PhD students and many graduate and undergraduate students. He is a full member of the European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO).
Research activities. Since 1978, he studies mostly myasthenia gravis (MG) and acetylcholine receptors (AChR), the autoantigen in MG. His involvement with MG contributed to the creation of the Hellenic MG Association, with which he maintains close links. With his collaborators they have studied the characteristics of the main immunogenic and pathogenic region of AChR and are developing a specific treatment for MG. They are also studying the structure and pharmacology of neuronal AChRs for the future design of drugs for neurological diseases, and have recently solved the high resolution structure of two AChR subunits (Zouridakis et al., Nature Str. & Mol. Biol. 2014; Kouvatsos et al. PNAS 2016). Recently they have also contributed to the discovery of the third autoantigen in MG, the LRΡ4, and have discovered a new autoantigen for neuromyelitis optica, the aquaporin-1. He has published 195 original articles in international journals and 102 reviews and has three patents. Citations to his publications are >7200, with an H-factor 42. For his research he has received 17 grants from the European Community (in the 6 as coordinator) and 40 grants from other international and national organizations. Tzartos NeuroDiagnostics is involved in three research grants, in one as coordinator (a Greek-Israeli bilateral grant), in another as scientific responsible (a Greek grant),and in the third (Horizon 2020) as partner.
Laboratory diagnosis of neurological diseases. As a postdoctoral fellow (during 1978-81) of Jon Lindstrom (who showed the role of anti-AChR antibodies in MG and developed the first diagnostic test for an autoimmune neurological disease), he brought in 1983 in Greece this test. For 30 years, he maintained and developed the immunochemical diagnosis of MG in Greece, supported by many investigations. In recent years his research activities have been expanding to other neuroimmune diseases such as neuromyelitis optica, and this research expansion is consistent with the continuous increase of the range of serological tests for neuroimmune diseases which he performs.
The employees of Tzartos NeuroDiagnostics have acquired unique laboratory experience and deep knowledge of the relevant diagnostics while working with S. Tzartos, dividing their time between research and diagnosis. Much of their research has been on the development of new diagnostics for neuroimmune diseases (illustrated in recent publications and in 2 of their 3 patents). Of note is the discovery of anti-LRΡ4 antibodies in MG (Zhang, Tzartos et al., Arch. Neurol. 2012) and in ALS (J. Tzartos et al. 2014), and of the anti-aquaporin-1 antibodies in neuromyelitis optica (Tzartos et al., PloS-1, 2013, and relevant patent).
Recently his team has led three international studies (laboratories and clinics from 13 countries with sera from ~800 'seronegative' MG patients for the extensive study of anti-LRP4 antibodies (Zisimopoulou et al., 2014), anti-MuSK antibodies with cell based assay (Tsonis et al. 2015 ) and anti-titin antibodies with RIA (Stergiou et al., 2016) in "seronegative" MG.



JOHN TZARTOS - Neurologist – Neuroimmunologist.

He received his medical degree in 2003 from the University of Ioannina, Greece. He received his Ph.D. in Neuroimmunology at the University of Oxford, Great Britain, in 2010. His research at the Department of Clinical Neurology, Oxford (2005-2009) concerned the “molecular and neuropathological study of multiple sclerosis”, which led to several highly cited publications. He continues clinical and laboratory research in Neuroimmunology (with emphasis on neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis) in the University of Athens, the Hellenic Pasteur Institute and Tzartos NeuroDiagnostics, in collaboration with several neurology clinics. He has published 20 original articles in international journals, 2 reviews and 2 patents. Thanks to his initiatives a new autoantigen was identified for neuromyelitis optica, the aquaporin-1 (J. Tzartos et al. Plos-1 2013). For this study he received an award (International Scholarship Award - 2013) by the American Academy of Neurologists. Also his initiatives led to the detection of the anti-LRP4 antibodies in ALS (J. Tzartos et al. 2014). His publications have been cited over 1,800 times. In 2015 he completed the Neurology specialty at Red Cross Hospital in Athens. Since 2016 he is an Academic Fellow of the University of Athens at the 1st Neurology Department, Eginition Hospital. He has extensive expertise in laboratory and clinical diagnosis of autoimmune neurological diseases.



Biopathologist: Lambros Kouros. He graduated in Medicine in 1989. He obtained his specialty in Clinical Microbiology – Biopathology (1996) and since 1996 he is continuously working as Scientific Officer in large Diagnostic Centers of Athens. He has extensive in expertise laboratory diagnosis.
Nuclear Physician: Theodore Pipikos. He received his medical degree in 2004. He was appointed nuclear physicist in 2010.



The scientists carrying out the analyses are highly trained with many years of relevant training in S. Tzartos’ laboratories. The group consists of a Ph.D. Chemist, four Biologists/Biochemists with postgraduate diplomas, a laboratory manager with postgraduate diploma, while the initial processing of biological samples is undertaken by two experienced technologists.




  • Tsiamalos, P., Kordas, G.,  Kokla, A., Poulas, K., and Tzartos, S.J. (2009). Epidemiological and immunological profile of MuSK myasthenia gravis in Greece. 
  • Trakas, N., Zisimopoulou, P., and Tzartos, S.J. (2011) Development of a highly sensitive diagnostic assay for muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) autoantibodies in myasthenia gravis. 
  • Zhang B., Tzartos J.S., Belimezi M., Ragheb S., Bealmear B.B.S., Lewis R.A.; Xiong W-C.; Lisak R.P., Tzartos S.J. and Mei L. (2011). Autoantibodies to LRP4 in double seronegative myasthenia gravis patients. Archives of Neurology. Dec 12. [Epub ahead of print]. 2012; 69(4):445-451. (featured article in the Journal’s Editorial Commentary)
  • Poulas K, Koutsouraki E, Kordas G, Kokla A, Tzartos SJ. Anti-MuSK- and anti-AChR-positive myasthenia gravis induced by d-penicillamine. J Neuroimmunol.  2012 Sep 15;250(1-2):94-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2012.05.011. Epub 2012 Jun 9. PubMed PMID: 22683336.
  • Zouvelou V, Stamboulis E, Skriapa L, Tzartos SJ. MuSK-Ab positive myasthenia:  Not always grave. J Neurol Sci. 2013, 15;331(1-2):150-1.
  • Zouvelou V, Kyriazi S, Rentzos M, Belimezi M, Micheli MA, Tzartos SJ, Stamboulis E. Double-seropositive myasthenia gravis. Muscle Nerve. 2013, 47(3):465-6.
  • Zouvelou V, Zisimopoulou P, Rentzos M, Karandreas N, Evangelakou P, Stamboulis E, Tzartos SJ. Double seronegative myasthenia gravis with anti-LRP 4 antibodies. Neuromuscul Disord. 2013 Jul;23(7):568-70.
  • Zisimopoulou P, Brenner T, Trakas N, Tzartos SJ. Serological diagnostics in myasthenia gravis based on novel assays and recently identified antigens.Autoimmun Rev. 2013 Jul;12(9):924-30.
  • Tzartos JS, Stergiou Ch, Kilidireas K, Zisimopoulou P,  Thomaidis T, and Tzartos SJ, Aquaporin-1 autoantibodies in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders. PLOS-1, 2013. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074773.
  • Zisimopoulou P, Evangelakou P, Tzartos J, Lazaridis K, Zouvelou V, Mantegazza R, Antozzi C, Andreetta F, Evoli A, Deymeer F, Saruhan-Direskeneli G, Durmus H, Brenner T, Vaknin A, Berrih-Aknin S, Frenkian Cuvelier M, Stojkovic T, Debaets M, Losen M, Martinez-Martinez P, Kleopa KA, Zamba-Papanicolaou E, Kyriakides T, Kostera-Pruszczyk A, Szczudlik P, Szyluk B, Lavrnic D, Basta I, Peric S, Tallaksen C, Maniaol A, & Tzartos SJ. A comprehensive analysis of the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of anti-LRP4 in myasthenia gravis.J. Autoimmunity. 2014; 52:139-45.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2013.12.004
  • Tzartos JS,  Zisimopoulou P, Rentzos M,  Karandreas N, Zouvelou V, Evangelakou P, Tsonis A, Thomaidis T, Lauria G, Andreetta F, Mantegazza R, Tzartos SJ.  LRP4 antibodies in serum and CSF from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.  
  • Zouvelou V, Zisimopoulou P, Psimenou E, Matsigkou E, Stamboulis E, Tzartos SJ. AChR-myasthenia gravis switching to double-seropositive several years after the onset. 
  • Tuzun E., Tzartos J., Ekizoglu E., Stergiou C., Zisimopoulou P., Çoban A., Shugaiv E., Türkoglu R., Kürtüncü M., Baykan B., Tzartos S. Title: Aquaporin-1 Antibody in Neuromyelitis Optica Patients. European Neurology, 2014. Sep 27;72(5-6):271-272.
  • Tsivgoulis G, Dervenoulas G, Kokotis P, Zompola C, Tzartos J, Tzartos SJ, Voumvourakis KI. Double seronegative myasthenia gravis with low density lipoprotein-4  (LRP4) antibodies presenting with isolated ocular symptoms.2014. 
  • Kordas G, Lagoumintzis G, Sideris S, Poulas K and Tzartos SJ. Direct proof of the in vivo pathogenic role of the AChR autoantibodies from myasthenia gravis patients. PLOS-1. 2014. Sep 26;9(9):e108327. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108327.
  • Skriapa L, Zisimopoulou P, Trakas N, Grapsa E, Tzartos SJ. Expression of extracellular domains of Muscle Spesific Kinase (MuSK) and use as immunoadsorbents for the development of an antigen specific therapy. 
  • Lazaridis K, Evaggelakou P, Bendenidi E,  Sideri A, Grapsa E and Tzartos S.J. Specific adsorbents for myasthenia gravis autoantibodies using mutants of the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor extracellular domains. 
  • Tsonis AI, Zisimopoulou P, Lazaridis K, Tzartos J, Matsigkou E, Zouvelou V, Mantegazza R, Antozzi C, Andreetta F, Evoli A, Deymeer F, Saruhan-Direskeneli G, Durmus H, Brenner T, Vaknin A, Berrih-Aknin S, Behin A, Sharshar T, De Baets M, Losen M, Martinez-Martinez P, Kleopa KA, Zamba-Papanicolaou E, Kyriakides T, Kostera-Pruszczyk A, Szczudlik P, Szyluk B, Lavrnic D, Basta I, Peric S, Tallaksen C, Maniaol A, Casasnovas Pons C, Pitha J, Jakubíkova M, Hanisch F, Tzartos SJ. MuSK autoantibodies in myasthenia gravis detected by cell based assay - A multinational study. J Neuroimmunol. 2015 Jul 15;284:10-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2015.04.015.
  • Stergiou C, Lazaridis K, Zouvelou V, Tzartos J, Mantegazza R, Antozzi C, Andreetta F, Evoli A, Deymeer F, Saruhan-Direskeneli G, Durmus H, Brenner T, Vaknin A, Berrih-Aknin S, Behin A, Sharshar T, De Baets M, Losen M, Martinez-Martinez P, Kleopa KA, Zamba-Papanicolaou E, Kyriakides T, Kostera-Pruszczyk A, Szczudlik P, Szyluk B, Lavrnic D, Basta I, Peric S, Tallaksen C, Maniaol A, Gilhus NE, Casasnovas Pons C, Pitha J, Jakubíkova M, Hanisch F, Bogomolovas J, Labeit D, Labeit S, Tzartos SJ.Titin antibodies in "seronegative" myasthenia gravis - A new role for an old antigen, J. Neuroimmunology, 2016. 292: 108-115. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2016.01.018.
  • Gilhus NE, Skeie GO, Romi F, Lazaridis K, Zisimoupoulou P, and Tzartos S. Myasthenia gravis-autoantibody characteristics and their implications for therapy. Nat. Rev. Neurol. 2016; 12(5):259-68. doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2016.44.
  • Koneczny I, Stevens JA, De Rosa A, Huda S, Huijbers MG, Saxena A, Maestri M, Lazaridis K, Zisimopoulou P, Tzartos S, Verschuuren J, van der Maarel SM, van Damme P, De Baets MH, Molenaar PC, Vincent A, Ricciardi R, Martinez-Martinez P, Losen M. IgG4 autoantibodies against muscle-specific kinase undergo Fab-arm exchange in myasthenia gravis patients. J Autoimmun. 2016 Dec 10. pii: S0896-8411(16)30160-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2016.11.005.
  • Lazaridis K, Baltatzidi V, Trakas N, Koutroumpi E, Karandreas N, Tzartos SJ. Characterization of a reproducible rat EAMG model induced with various human acetylcholine receptor domains. J Neuroimmunol. 2016 Dec 21. pii: S0165-5728(16)30233-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2016.12.011. 
  • Türkoğlu R, Lassmann H, Aker FV, Tzartos J, Tzartos S, Tüzün E. Recurrent tumefactive demyelinating lesions: a pathological study. Clin Neuropathol. 2017 Feb 17. doi: 10.5414/NP301005.
  • Hong Y, Zisimopoulou P, Trakas N, Karagiorgou K, Stergiou C , Skeie GO, Hao H, Gao X, Owe J, Zhang X, Yue Y-X, Romi F, Li H-F, Gilhus N, Tzartos S. Multiple antibody detection in “seronegative” myasthenia gravis patients. Eur J Neurol 2017. 24(6):844-850. doi: 10.1111/ene.13300.
  • CordtsI, BodartN, HartmannK, KaragiorgouK, TzartosJS, MeiL, ReimannJ, VanDammeP, RivnerMH, VigneronA, WeisJ, SchulzJB, TzartosSJ, ClaeysKG. Screening for lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4-, agrin-, and titin-antibodies and exploring the autoimmune spectrumin myasthenia gravis. J Neurol. 2017 Jun;264(6):1193-1203. doi: 10.1007/s00415-017-8514-z.
  • Hong Y, Skeie GO, Zisimopoulou P, Karagiorgou K, Tzartos SJ, Gao X, Yue YX, Romi F, Zhang X, Li HF, Gilhus NE. Juvenile-onset myasthenia gravis: autoantibody status, clinical characteristics and genetic polymorphisms. J Neurol. 2017 May;264(5):955-962. doi: 10.1007/s00415-017-8478-z.
  • Tzartos JS, Stergiou C, Daoussis D, Zisimopoulou P, Andonopoulos AP, Zolota V, Tzartos SJ. Antibodies to aquaporins are frequent in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Rheumatology. 2017 Dec 1;56(12):2114-2122. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kex328. PubMed PMID: 28968830.
  • Lazaridis K, Dalianoudis I, Baltatzidi V, Tzartos SJ. Specific removal of autoantibodies by extracorporeal immunoadsorption ameliorates experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. J. Neuroimmunol. 2017 Nov 15;312:24-30.
  •  Saxena A, Stevens J, Cetin H, Koneczny I, Webster R, Lazaridis K, Tzartos S, Vrolix K, Nogales-Gadea G, Machiels B, Molenaar PC, Damoiseaux J, De Baets MH, Simon-Keller K, Marx A, Vincent A, Losen M, Martinez-Martinez P. Characterization of an anti-fetal AChR monoclonal antibody isolated from a myasthenia gravis patient. Sci Rep. 2017 Oct 31;7(1):14426. doi: 10.1038/s41598
  • Altıokka-Uzun G, Erdağ E, Baykan B, Tzartos J, Gezen-Ak D, Samancı B, Dursun E, Zisimopoulou P, Karagiorgou K, Stergiou C, Şahin E, Ekizoğlu E, Kürtüncü M, Tüzün E. Glial and neuronal antibodies in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Neurol Sci. 2017 Jul 21. doi: 10.1007/s10072-017-3066-7. [Epub ahead of print].
  • Zagoriti Z. Lagoumintzis G, Perroni G, Papathanasiou G, Papadakis A, Ambrogi V, Tzartos J, and Poulas K. Evidence for association of STAT4 and IL12RB2 variants with Myasthenia gravis susceptibility: what is the effect on gene expression in thymus? Journal of Neuroimmunology. 2018 pii: S0165-5728(17)30559-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2018.03.008.


3 Eslin str. Ampelokipoi, Athens, 11523, Tel 210-6411060 & 210-6429969, Fax 210-6411067.

Emails: info@neurodiagnostics.gr & stzartos@gmail.com